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President of India: Election, Powers, Role, and Duties

What is the process of the President of India Election process? What are the powers and role of the President? Your all questions about the president. A lot to know in detail.

President of India Duties and Role

India became independent from British rule on 15 August 1949. India’s constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. But in preparing this, there were many issues in which discussion and analysis took place. In the discussion of those 2 years, 11 months and 18 days, one aspect came out which was the post of President.

What is the need of the President, how will be the relationship between the President and the Parliament, what will be the difference between the President and the Prime Minister, and what will be the rights of the President, the answer of such questions was found in that meeting of the constituency.

The presidential rule like America was not implemented in India, but Britain’s parliamentary rule was adopted. But the role of President of India is most important. As per the constitution of India, the President is the head or king of the Country and also the first citizen of India. President rules the whole country with the help of the Prime Minister and the council of ministers. It means Prime Minister rule India in the name of the President.

As per Article 74 of the constitution, the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister are appointed to advise the President. The President can not do anything without the advice of Ministers. In this context, we can say the real power and keys of power are with the cabinet and the Prime Minister.

Powers of President of India

President’s post of India is totally different from other country’s President post. To understand the powers of the president of India, we have to divide them into some categories such as:

  • Legislative Powers
  • Executive Powers
  • Financial Powers
  • Military Powers
  • Judicial Power
  • Diplomatic Power
  • Emergency Power

Legislative Powers

The President of India is an essential part of Parliament. The president has the supreme power in Parliament. Every year parliament conducts three sessions. The president summons the parliament house (both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) and prorogues it. He also gives his welcome speech every year on the first session of parliament. The President can dissolve the current Loksabha. The President also can ask the ruling party to prove their majority in the Loksabha house.

Before passing any money bill and state-reorganization bill in Parliament, it is necessary that the government takes the approval of the President. Without the recommendation of the President, these bills can not be introduced in Parliament.

Except, these the President has the power to grant ordinances, even there is no parliament session.

Every bill that passed in the parliament gets converted into law after the signature of the President.

Executive Power

As we mentioned above, the President is the head of the government of India. Just after the General election, the President appoints the Prime Minister and council of ministers.

Other than the ministers, the President appoints Attorney General of India (AGI), Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), Chief Election Commission of India, UPSC Members, Finance Commission members, Governor of each state.

Judicial Power

The judicial system is the most trusted organization in India. Supreme Court is the head of the judicial system. The president of India appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme court.

The president also appoints the Chief justice of all the High Courts in India.

The President can remove by reducing and pardoning the sentence sent by the Supreme Court and any other court, along with the President can also dismiss and forgive the death penalty.

Financial Powers

The financial Budget is a very important and essential part of any country. In India, the president produces a financial budget through the Finance Minister of India.

The President creates a Finance Commission every 5 years. Finance commission decides the percentage of revenue to be shared between the Center and State Government.

Diplomatic Power

The President has the power to negotiate any deal or agreement with a foreign country. So President appoints his own ambassador and High Commissioner in foreign Country with the help of External Affairs Minister.

Military Power

The President is the supreme commander of defense. The president appoints the chief of Defence Staff, Army Chief, Chief of the Naval Staff, and Chief of the Air Staff with the recommendation of Parliament.

Besides this, the President has the power to declare war against any other Country and can stop the war.

Emergency Powers

In India, there are three types of Emergency in the Constitution.

  1. National Emergency
  2. President Rule
  3. Financial Emergency

The President can implement the above three types of emergency in the whole Country or in some parts of the country.

President Election

Many countries in this world have different procedures for the election of the President. But in India, the presidential election is totally different from the general election of India. Before going to the presidential election, let’s discuss the eligibility criteria to become the President of India.

Eligibility Criteria to Become the President of India

  • Candidate must be an Indian Citizen
  • Candidates age must be 35 or more
  • Must be follow all the condition to become the member of Parliament

The President Election Rule

As per Article 54 of the Constitution, all the members of Parliament and all state Assembly only can cast their vote for the post of President.

Presidential Election Procedure

The President of India is not elected directly by the People of India, but by the Electoral College. Which are all the state legislative assemblies and elected members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

In the General election of India, each vote has one value. However, in the Presidental election, the value of MLAs varies from state to state. this is done to give weightage to the population of each state. This is calculated by the below formula

$latex Value\;of\;Vote\;of\;Each\;MLA\;=\;\frac{Total\;Population\;in\;the\;State}{1000\;\times\;Total\;Number\;of\;MLAs\;in\;the\;State} $

Let us understand by taking an Example:

Assume the population of Odisha= 46000000

Total MLAs in Odisha = 147

$latex So\;Value\;of\;Vote\;of\;Each\;MLA\;of\:Odisha\;=\;\frac{46000000}{1000\;\times\;147}=\;312 $

Similarly, for each state, the vote value of MLAs is calculated and which is = 5,49,495

Now Question is what is the vote value of MPs?

It’s simple

$latex The vote Value of  Each MPs = Total MLA’s Vote ValueNo of Constituency= 5,49,495776=708 $

The total value of MPs vote = 549408

So finally total vote in Electoral College= MPs Vote + MLA’s Vote = 549408+ 549495 =1098903 Votes

To become the president of India, the candidate must gain 50% +1 votes.

Hence the Political party having the number of MPs in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and most ruling in states having the more chance to win the Presidental Election.

This is how the President of India is gets elected.

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