India is fully covered with mountains. Mountains protects India from the enemies and also the mountains controls the weather of India. Now learn here details about the Mountains of India
Mountains of India come under the second order of relief features. This is a portion of land surface rising considerably above the surrounding country, either as a single eminence or in a range or chain.
A Mountains of India may have several forms
- Mountain Ridge
- Mountain Range
- Mountain Group
- Mountain System
The Great Himalalayas
The Northern mountains of India wall is a series of high mountain ranges stretching over the Northern borders of India. The geologically young and structurally fold mountain ranges, the Himalayas run in a West-East direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. They form an arc, which covers a distance of about 2400 km. Their width varies from 400km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh.
The Himalayas Range is classified into four Longiudinal series of mountains of India
- Trans Himalayas
- Greater Himalayas or Inner Himalayas or Himadri
- Lesser Himalayas or Middle Himalayas or Himachal Himalayas
- Outer Himalaya or Shiwaliks
- North of the Great Himalayas lies in the Trans-Himalayas or in the Tibet Himalayas.
- This range acts as a watershed between rivers flowing towards the south and those flowing towards North.
- These ranges are about 40 km wide and rise in height up to 5000m. They include the Karakoram, Zaskar and Ladakh ranges.
- The northern most important range is known as the Great Or Inner Himalaya.
- The range lying to the south of Himadri, forms the most rugged mountain system and is known as Himachal Himalaya or middle Himalaya.
- The outer most range of Himalaya is called the Outer Himalaya.
- They extended over a width of 10-50 km and have altitude varying between 900 and 1100 meters.
- These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalaya ranges located in North.
The Great Indian Plain
To the South of Himalayas and North of Peninsula lies the Great Plain of North India. This is the largest alluvial tract of the world, extending to a length of 3200 km and width varies between 150 to 300 km. The Regional division of Great planes of India are:
- Rajasthan Plane
- Punjab-Haryana Plain
- Ganga Plane
- Brahmaputra Plane
- Also known as Thar or Great Indian desert, which covers Western Rajasthan and the adjoining part of Pakistan.
- Desert proper is called Marusthali.
- Marusthali is rocky, while its Western part is covered by shifting sand dunes locally known as Dorain.
- The Eastern part of Thar desert upto Aravali range is semi-arid plain, which is known as Rajasthan Bagar.
- It is drained by a number of seasonal streams creating fertile tracts locally known as Rohi.
- The Great Indian desert gives way to the fertile plains of Punjab and Haryana towards East and North-East.
- Its Eastern boundary in Haryana is formed by the Yamuna river.
- Depositional processes by the rivers continuing since long, has united these doabs However, this mass of alluvium is broken by bluffs, locally known as Dhayas.
This is the largest unit of the Great Plain of India. Depending upon its geological variations, this plane can be further sub-divided into the following three divisions
Upper Ganga Plain
- Compacting the upper part of Ganga plain, this plain is delimited by 300 m contour in Shiwaliks in the North, the Peninsular body in the South and course of Yamuna river in the West and 100 meters contour in East.
- The gradient is completely steeper in the North Sandy stretches, locally known as Bhurs.
Middle Ganga Plain
- To the East of the upper Ganga plain, lies middle Ganga plain occupying Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- This plain is drained by Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi rivers. Major unit of this plain are Ganga-Ghaghara doab, Ghaghara- Gandak doab and Gandak-Kosi doab (Mithila plain).
Lower Ganga Plain
- Some districts of Bihar and the whole of Paschim Banga are part of this plain.
- The Northern part of this plain has been formed by sediment deposited by Tista, Jaldhaka and Torsa. Besides, this area is marked by Drawn and Barren.
- Western boundary of these plains are formed by Indo-Bangladesh border as well as the boundary of the lower Ganga plain.
- The Brahmaputra river enters this plain near Sadiya and flows further to Bangladesh after turning Southwards near Dhubri.
- There are large marshy tracts in this region and Southern tributaries of Brahmaputra also have meandering course and there are good number of bhils and ox-bow lakes.
The Peninsular Plateau
- The Peninsular platcau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwanaland and thus, making it a part of the oldest land mass.
- This region of the country is surrounded on three sides by water and thus, is a Peninsular plateau.
- The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. Narmada river, which flows into a Rift valley, divides the region into two parts namely, the central highlands in its North and the Deccan plateau in its South.
The Aravalli Ranges
- It runs North-East to South-West for 800 km from Delhi through Rajasthan to Palanpur in Gujarat.
- It has a lower elevation between Delhi and Ajmer, where it is by a chain of discontinuous ranges.
- The general height of this range varies between 400-1300 m.
- (1722 m) is the highest peak of the range located in Abu hills of Rajasthan. Barr, Piplighat, Dewari, Desuri are some of the passes associated with this range.
The Vindhyan Ranges
- It runs parallel to the Narmada Rift valley as an escarpment in an East-West direction from Jobat in Gujarat to Sasaram in Bihar for a distance of 1200 km.
- The general elevation of the ranges is 400-700 m.
- The Great dry fault separates the Aravalies from Vindhyan range.
The Satpura Ranges
- It is a series of seven mountains that run in the East-West direction in between Narmada and Tapi rivers.
- It is an example of block mountain. Amarkantak is important pealk lying in the Maikal range at Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh border and is the source of the river Narmada.
The Marwar Uplands
- The Marwar uplands of Eastern Rajasthan lie to the East of Aravalli ranges.
- They are made up of sandstones and limestones of the Vindhyan period.
- Chambal river and its major tributary Banas flows in this region before joining Yamuna.
The Malwa Plateau
- Largely in Northern Madhya Pradesh, forms a triangular shape and is typical for having two systems of drainage.
- Rivers like Mahi and Narmada flow through it into the Arabian Sea, while rivers like Chambal and Betwa flow through it to join Yamuna and ultimately fall into Bay of Bengal.
The Chotanagpur Plateau
- It lies East of Baghelkhand in the State of Jharkhand covering some parts of Chhattisgarh and Paschim Banga.
- Its average elevation is 700 m above sea level.
- It is the storehouse of minerals and a large scale mining of iron, manganese, coal, uranium etc are done in this region.
- This plateau is drained by numerous rivers forming a radial drainage pattern.
- The Damodar river valley is well-known for its coal deposits.
- In the North-East of this region lies Hazaribagh plateau, while towards East are Parsavnath hills and towards South-East is the Ranchi plateau. Rajmahal hills form the North-Eastern edge of the Chotanagpur plateau and are covered by black soil.
- The plateau is an example of Pat Land.
The Deccan Plateau
- It is the largest unit of the Peninsular plateau of India with an elevation of 600 m.
- It is higher in the South than in its North. It generally slopes from West to East and various big rivers of Southern India like Godavari, Krishna. Cauveri etc flow through it.
- Karnataka plateau with Archean formations lies to the South of Maharashtra plateau having rocks of lava origin in in Northern Karnataka called Malnad region and the rest of the red soil region of the plateau called Maidan.
The Western Ghats or Sahyadris
- The Sahyadris from the Western edge of the Deccan plateau and lie parallel to the Western coast.
- They form a continuous water divide.
- They run continuously for 1600 km from Maharastra to Kanyakumari.
The Eastern Ghats
- These are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
- The Western ghats mountains of India are higher average elevation is 900-1600m.
The Coastal Plains
- The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian sea on the West and the Bay of Bengal on the East.
- The Western Coastal Plains include plains along Kuchchh and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat to Konkan plains of Maharashtra-Goa, Karnataka plains and the Southern Malabar plains along Kerala coast.
Eastern Coastal Plains
- The plains along the Bay of Bengal, i.c., the Eastern coastal plains are wide and level. In the Northern part, they are referred to as the Utkal plains and Northern Circars, while the Southern part is known as the Coromandal coast.
Western Coastal Plains
- It run almost parallel between Sahyadris and Arabian sea. from Kanyakumari to Surat. North to South it has seen classified as Kathiawar plain, Konkan plain, Karnataka plain and Malabar plain.